Introduction

The Marywood University Editorial Style Guide provides editorial standards for use in all content (web and print) generated by or on behalf of Marywood University. By following these guidelines, content written for presentations, websites, or publications representing the University will remain consistent. All University employees are requested to follow these standards.

The Marketing Office is responsible for maintaining Marywood University’s Brand Guidelines. Editorial content, which reflects a positive, consistent, and cohesive image of the University, is part of that brand portfolio.

The style points raised here are guidelines, and they are flexible in certain cases. In some instances, the style used within University-generated content is based on the academic tradition of this institution and, as such, varies from the recommendations normally used in other style guides (e.g. capitalization of faculty and administrative titles, academic degrees, and department names). However, the rules of grammar and punctuation are fixed syntactic regulations and should not be arbitrarily changed. With regard to media releases, we strictly follow the guidelines set by the Associated Press in The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual.

In a general sense, editorial guidelines must be applied to each case in a consistent manner (in some cases, it comes down to the aesthetics, format, and usage of the piece). The judgment of the Publications Director is a part of that application, and the ever-evolving platform of digital content also influences style decisions. All areas of the University should strive to follow these guidelines, which were created in the interest of clarifying written content and supporting the University as a whole. Any questions or special considerations should be brought to the attention of the Publications Director.

Editorial Guide

Style Guide Recommendations

Style guides and manuals used by the Marketing Office include:

How Text Fits Into the Marywood University Graphic Identity System

Marywood University is the official name of this institution. All content originating from the University should use this name. As an acceptable second reference, writers may use Marywood or the University.

When making historical references to the institution and when citing information about alumni who graduated prior to 1997, it is acceptable to simply use Marywood to avoid confusion between college and university designations. One of the few instances in which College would be used is within the text of Marywood’s history. However, if an alumna/us prefers using College in reference to her/his educational background, defer to the graduate’s preference.

Established Marywood University descriptive content should be included in some part of all publications in either a long, short, or one-statement format:

Long Format (863 characters, incl. spaces) 

Marywood University prepares students to have a positive impact on society at regional and global levels while providing each student with the foundation for success in an interdependent world. Marywood University is coeducational, comprehensive, residential, and Catholic. Founded in 1915 by the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, the University serves men and women from a variety of backgrounds and religions.

The University enrolls more than 3,000 students in an array of undergraduate and graduate programs. Committed to enriching human lives through ethical and religious values and a tradition of service and motivated by a pioneering, progressive spirit, Marywood provides a framework for educational excellence that enables students to develop fully as persons and to master professional and leadership skills necessary for meeting human needs.

Short Format (323 characters)

Founded in 1915 by the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Marywood University is a private, comprehensive, coeducational, Catholic university in Northeast Pennsylvania that offers 100 undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degree programs and serves men and women from a variety of backgrounds and religions.

One-Statement Format (56 characters)

A private, Catholic university in Northeast Pennsylvania.

Compliance Statement

The Marywood University compliance statement should be used in every publication (except formal invitations) and on web pages, as deemed appropriate. It follows:

Marywood University, in accordance with applicable provisions of federal law, does not discriminate on grounds of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability in the administration of any of its educational programs or activities, including admission, or with respect to employment. Inquiries should be directed to Yerodin Lucas, Interim Director of Equity & Inclusion and Coordinator for Act 504 and Title IX, Marywood University, Scranton, PA 18509-1598. Phone: (570) 340-6042 or e-mail: ylucas@marywood.edu.

Academic Style

Academic, Administrative, and Professional Titles

Most style guides choose to capitalize titles only when they immediately precede a name. However, as an institution of higher learning, Marywood University will defer to academic tradition and capitalize titles within the context of university publications.

                Dr. William Conlogue, Professor of English

                Lisa Casella, Associate Director for University Admissions Communications

                Carrie B. Toomey, Art Director

However, in news release formats and as other outside formats demand, we will follow the accepted Associated Press Stlyebook, i.e. lower case format, for all titles, regardless of rank. For the sake of respect, as well as consistency, Marywood University uses courtesy titles on secondary and later references. This is applicable for University publications, web content, and media releases. If someone has earned a doctorate, that person’s degree should be listed after his or her last name upon first reference. For later references, simply writing Dr. and the person’s last name is acceptable. For all others on second reference, simply use Mr. or Miss/Mrs./Ms., according to personal preference. Use Ms. when a woman’s title preference is not indicated or known.

William Conlogue, Ph.D., professor of English, (later, Dr. Conlogue)

Lisa Casella, associate director for university admissions communications, (later, Ms. Casella)

Carrie B. Toomey, art director, (later, Mrs. Toomey)

Also:

Instructor in, not instructor of

Professor emeritus or emerita, not emeritus or emerita professor

Professor of, not professor in – but, professorship in

Research associate in, not research associate of

The word president is capped whenever it is used to refer to current and former Marywood Presidents, whether it’s before or after the name. This policy is designed to make it easy for readers to quickly determine that a printed piece refers to the University President as opposed to any other president.

When naming Marywood University faculty, staff, or students in a document, in most cases the person should be described or identified by title, such as “John Smith, a graduate student in education, …” or “Lia Richards-Palmiter, Ph.D., Director of Student Equity and Inclusion, …”

You may want your content to have an informal tone and wish to use first names. If so, on first reference give the person’s full name and title or position, and use the first name on second and later references. It is not acceptable to call some people by their first names and others by title and last name or by last name alone within the same publication. Nor is it acceptable to use courtesy titles with some last names but not with others within the same publication. An exception is that children, after being identified by first and last name, may be referred to by first name alone, even though adults are referred to differently. (Note: It is redundant to refer to someone as, for example, Dr. Alan Levine, Ph.D. Use either Dr. Alan Levine or Alan Levine, Ph.D.)

The Congregation of the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, sponsors Marywood University. Upon first reference, write the formal name of the Congregation. For later references it is acceptable to refer to the Sisters, the Congregation, or the IHM Sisters. Note that Sisters holding doctorates may choose to list this degree also. Traditionally, the abbreviation of the Congregation’s name always included periods, but, in more recent times, it is usually written without periods. As a rule of thumb, we usually include the periods for degree abbreviations in Marywood publications. Sisters may be correctly listed in the following ways:

Sister Mary Persico, IHM, Ed.D.

Sister Mary Persico, IHM   

Academic Degrees

Spelled out: associate degree; baccalaureate degree, bachelor’s degree; master’s degree; doctoral degree, doctorate; bachelor of arts, master of science, doctor of philosophy.

In university publications, we typically abbreviate degrees with periods and without spaces: B.A.; M.S.; Ph.D.; M.B.A.; Ed.D.; J.D.; M.D., etc., though the Chicago Manual of Style indicates that it is acceptable to list them without periods. The key here is consistency throughout the piece.

If you are using the plural of B.A., M.A., Ph.D., and other abbreviations with periods, use B.A.’s; M.A.’s; Ph.D.’s, etc. That’s Chicago Manual style, designed to prevent confusion. With plurals of acronyms where no periods are used, do not use an apostrophe (e.g., CACs). Use B.A., M.A., Ph.D., and other degree abbreviations primarily in listings, such as departmental faculty rosters:

Edward J. O’Brien, Professor of Psychology, B.A, University of Kansas; M.S., Ph.D., University of Massachusetts; APA-Approved Residency in Clinical Psychology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio; Licensed Clinical Psychologist; C.M.F.C.*

*Note that the designation C.M.F.C. after a person’s name in any Marywood University publication indicates membership in the University’s own Order of Cor Mariae Pro Fide et Cultura, an honor bestowed on members of the faculty and administration upon completion of distinguished vicennial service to the University.

When listing degrees that a person has earned, it is clearer in regular text to spell out the degrees:

He earned a bachelor of science degree in biology.

She earned a bachelor’s degree in psychology.

Capitalize degrees on business cards, on diplomas, or when displayed in a directory or resume. Lowercase them in running text, where they are almost always generic in nature.

Academic Disciplines

Do not capitalize academic disciplines for general use, such as after a degree, or for informal use. Capitalize only when using the discipline as a formal name.

General: Jack earned a bachelor of business administration degree in accounting.

Informal: Sara is taking some philosophy courses this semester.

Formal: The Department of Nursing requires a community service component.

Academic Year

Semester names should not be capitalized when used to refer generally to the time of the academic year. For example, use spring semester when generally referring to that time of the academic year. If a specific year is attached to a semester, thereby imparting special significance to it, it should be capitalized.

                Registration for summer sessions will occur during the spring semester.

                Registration for Spring Semester 2023 will occur during Fall Semester 2022.

                but,

                Registration for the spring semester will occur during the preceding fall semester.

The word commencement is typically lowercased in media releases, however, for University publications the institution defers to academic tradition once more by choosing to capitalize references to this annual ceremony and its related events

                The Marywood University Commencement will be held at the Mohegan Sun Arena.

                Activities have been set for Commencement Weekend.

Acronyms

Although people at Marywood University refer to various facilities and programs by acronyms in speech and internal publications (such as LC for the Learning Commons), in University content, writers should not use acronyms except for those commonly used both inside and outside the University community (such as NASA and the FBI). If an acronym must be used to spare readers confusion, spell out the full name on the first mention, with the acronym in parentheses following: Learning Commons (LC), then LC upon second reference.

Administrative Areas

Do not capitalize the reference to a general administrative area of the University in which a person works.

She has worked in advancement for eight years.

but

She worked in the Office of University Advancement for eight years.

Admissions/Admission

Admissions refers in a collective way to the many different types of admission (e.g., undergraduate, transfer, graduate). The word admissions is also used when referring to the fact that thousands of students are admitted: the admissions of thousands vs. the admission of an individual. Use admission when referring to an individual’s admission.

Campus

Lowercase, even in campus names.

                She attended Marywood University’s School of Social Work at the Lehigh Valley campus.

                The Pocono campus of the School of Social Work sent several students to a national conference.

Chair; chairperson

Use chair or chairperson, even if you know the gender of the person involved.

Class Years

There has been much discussion regarding this topic. It has been determined that all class years of alumni or students should be written after the individual’s full name (not between a woman’s maiden name and married name). Do not use a comma between the name and the year. It is important to note the reasoning behind this practice:

  • A class year applies to a person, not to the person’s name. Even if a person changes his or her name, the class year still applies to that person.
  • Technically speaking, the class year is a modifier, and as such should never be placed in the middle of a proper noun, e.g. a person’s name.
  • Automatic line spacing in digital content often creates a situation in which a class year could fall at the end of a line. If it were between a person’s name, it would splice the person’s full name. If a comma divided the class year and name, the class year would subsequently be separated from that person’s name. In addition to being incorrect in format, these placements could cause great confusion for the reader.
  • Additionally, the prospect of pairing a class year next to a maiden or graduation name would mean that writers would need to evaluate every case to determine whether a person’s name had been acquired prior to or after graduation before verifying a class year placement. This practice is tedious as well as erroneous.
  • Finally, aesthetics play a role – it simply looks better and more consistent to use a class year following the person’s full last name.

 

Correct:                Noreen Durkin Anderson ’14

                                                John Smith ’01  

Incorrect:               Noreen Durkin ’14 Anderson

John Smith, ’01

Colleges and Schools

The colleges of Marywood University are always capitalized:

College of Arts and Sciences

College of Health and Human Services

College of Professional Studies

Marywood University schools, such as the School of Architecture, the School of Social Work, the School of Business and Global Innovation, and the School of Education, are part of different colleges within the University, but retain a distinct identity as a school. On a first reference, these schools typically include the University name (Marywood University School of Social Work); upon subsequent references, they can be referenced in shorter formats. For example, the School of Social Work is often referred to by its abbreviation (SSW). Make sure to use the longer format with the abbreviation in parentheses in the primary reference, and then feel free to use the abbreviation in subsequent references.

Examples:

The Marywood University School of Architecture (SOA) was created to produce a new generation of architects and interior architects. The School is a place for research, exploration, and testing ideas. The SOA requires all second-year architecture and interior architecture students to purchase their own laptop computers.

The Marywood University School of Social Work (SSW) is the leading provider of social work education in Northeast Pennsylvania, having educated thousands social workers since 1969. The School of Social Work offers graduate programs in four locations, including Scranton, Lehigh Valley, Pocono, and Central Pennsylvania. The collaborative research projects of SSW faculty and students are often presented at national conferences.

Referred to in a general sense, do not capitalize:

Marywood University has three colleges and four schools.

but,

Marywood University has three colleges, including the College of  Arts and Sciences, the College of Health and Human Services, and the College of Professional Studies, as well as four schools, the School of Architecture, the School of Business and Global Innovation, the School of Education, and the School of Social Work.

Continuing Education Unit

Continuing Education Units are standard units of educational contact for participants in various continuing education courses. On second and subsequent references, use CEU, no periods or spaces. Plural is CEUs, no apostrophe.

Upon completing the course, each participant receives a certificate of the 6.0 CEUs earned.

Course Names, Numbers, Descriptions

Names of courses should be given as they are listed in the appropriate catalogs. Ordinarily, a course name and number appear together in all cases. For course numbers, always use numerals. To prevent confusion, a course’s name should be listed along with its number and with the number of credits for the course following in parenthesis.

ENGL 339 Children’s Literature (3)

Course descriptions (as they appear in the catalog) should be used with numbers and titles.

Note: When used alone, course titles should be capitalized.

Julian looked forward to his Dynamics of Speech Communication class.

Credits in, Units of

Always use numerals: 3 credits; 18 credits in history; a 3-credit course; 4 units of English; 1 unit of geometry; 2 units of a foreign language. Also, use numerals when referring to credit hours.

Credit is earned in a subject, not of it; therefore, a major may require 25-29 credits “in” health education, but it does not require 25-29 credits “of” health education. It is the opposite for units: units “of” a subject, not units “in” a subject.

Dean’s List

Always capitalize Dean’s List. It is a formal academic document.

Decades

No apostrophe: 1920s; 1980s; mid-1970s; spell out thirties; forties; fifties; sixties; etc.

A decade would only include an apostrophe if it was being used as a possessive modifier.

The actors wore 1950’s clothing styles.

but,

The clothing styles featured in the revue were from the 1950s.

Department Names

Capitalize when used as a formal name: Department of Nursing; lowercase as informal name: the nursing department, the department.

Drop/Add

Separated by a slash, not a hyphen.

                The free drop/add period will last until Friday.

Faculty–Plural or Singular?

Faculty, like other collective nouns, is used with the singular form of a verb.

The faculty insists that students be allowed to speak.

The faculty includes distinguished scholars in many fields.

Fields of Study, Marywood University Programs

Do not capitalize names of fields of study. Capitalize the names of majors or minors when used as specific programs offered at Marywood University. Do not cap the words major or minor. Only capitalize the program name if it is part of the official name. If the word program does not constitute part of an official name, it should be in lowercase format.

He was studying art at Marywood University.

Most Art Education majors from Marywood University do their student teaching in local schools.

The Science program features a number of concentration areas.

The Physician Assistant Program at Marywood University is committed to providing students with an exceptional education in a supportive and nurturing environment.

When referring to specific degree programs at Marywood University, cap the program name but only cap the degree for University publications. External outlets (media, publications) usually lowercase degrees:

Marywood Publication:

Marywood University offers a Bachelor of Arts program in Communication Arts.

The Master of Science degree in Speech-Language Pathology is a highly competitive program.

External Usage

He hopes to earn his master of science degree in biotechnology next May.

Ms. Walsh holds a bachelor of arts degree in art therapy.

ID Card

Refers to Marywood University’s identification card. Capitalize ID with no periods or spaces. Do not capitalize card.

Off campus, On campus

As adverb, no hyphens; as adjective, hyphens.

The two had rented an apartment off campus for the summer.

On-campus housing was provided for stranded commuters during the blizzard.

Office Names

Capitalize the formal name of the office, but lowercase when used informally.

Frank addressed his memo to the Office of Military and Veteran Services.

Sharon worked with the marketing office to get publicity for her club’s event.

Program names, capitalizing

See fields of study, Marywood University programs in this section

Thesis/Dissertation

A scholarly paper written to earn a graduate degree at Marywood University, whether at the master’s or doctoral level, is a thesis (not a dissertation). Plural: theses.

Trustees

Board of Trustees: Capitalize on first mention; the board or the trustees thereafter.

University

University should be capped any time it refers to Marywood. Do not cap university if the reference is a general one, even if Marywood is in the same sentence.

Marywood University is an independent, comprehensive, Catholic institution.

Students leave for winter break in mid-December and return to the University in mid-January.

Area residents value our university community.

University-wide

It’s University-wide, hyphenated, but it is statewide, nationwide, and just about every other “wide” spelled solid. If you want to investigate further, consult the Chicago Manual and the “Hyphens” section of this guide.

Consult the Chicago Manual for general rules about the use of italics. Italics are used in digital or typeset material to help readers quickly identify certain words and phrases, such as foreign expressions or book titles. Digital or typeset material should not contain underlining.

Academic Publications

Titles of dissertations and theses, manuscripts in collections, lectures and papers read at meetings, machine copies of typescripts (photocopies, mimeographs, etc.) are set in Roman type and quoted. Names of depositories, archives, and the like, and names of manuscript collections are capped 

and set in Roman type without quotation marks.

Latin Scholarly Terms, Other Foreign Words

Although italics are used for sic, other Latin scholarly words and commonly used foreign words are set in Roman (for example, ibid., in situ, et al., ennui). Foreign words not common in English usage are italicized. Consult Webster's Tenth. If the word is listed in the "Foreign Words and Phrases" section of Webster's, it should be italicized. If it's in the regular listings, make it Roman.

Plurals, Possessives of Italicized Words

When you make an italicized word plural or possessive (name of a magazine, book, etc.), make only the name italic. The s or 's should be in roman type.

It is the Washington Post's view that the bill should not be passed.

Poetry

Use small italic letters to show a rhyme scheme.

Shakespearean sonnet: abab, cdcd, efef, gg.

Punctuation Around Italics

Except for apostrophes, punctuation that follows or precedes an italic word also is set in italics.

References to Words as Words and Letters as Letters; Grades

References to words as words are italicized, as are references to letters as letters. The exception is letter grades, which are capped and in Roman type.

  • The words of the were left out of the sentence.
  • She had to add an s to make the word plural.
  • The teacher didn't give a grade higher than B..

Technical Terms

Technical terms, if followed by explanation, are usually in italics the first time they are mentioned.

Titles of Works

See the Chicago Manual for a complete explanation and more examples of italic/nonitalic titles. Also see "Punctuation" section of this manual.

The following are italicized:

  • book titles
  • brochures and pamphlets
  • movie titles
  • magazine and periodical titles
  • newspaper names
  • long poems
  • plays
  • paintings, drawings, sculpture, works of art
  • long musical compositions
  • TV and radio programs (continuing series)

Items that should be in quotation marks: direct quotes; song titles; short poems; essays; television and radio programs (individual episodes); short story titles; article titles; parts of books (chapters or sections); conference titles.

In names of newspapers and magazines, the is in Roman type and lowercased, no matter how the newspaper refers to itself within its own pages.

I read the Scranton Times-Tribune and the Wood Word.

University Publications

Italicize names of University publications that come out on a regular basis.

The next issue of Impressions will explore the new academic programs in greater detail.

Versus

The abbreviation v. is used in legal citations:

Marbury v. Madison

The case names are usually italicized; v. may be either Roman or italic, provided use is consistent.

In all other areas the word is usually spelled out, but if it is necessary to abbreviate it (in titles or headlines, for example), use vs. in roman:

The Marywood University Pacers vs. the University of Scranton Royals.

Use Webster’s Tenth Collegiate Dictionary and the Chicago Manual (fourteenth edition or higher) to check on capitalization of non-University-related words. Consult the “Academic Style” section of this guide for the capitalization of University-related words. Whether to cap a word depends on many factors, including the word’s position in a sentence and the word’s function.

Armed Forces/Military Titles

Full names of armies, navies, air forces, etc., are capitalized (U.S. Marine Corps, Royal Air Force, the British Navy, Army Corps of Engineers). The words army, navy, etc., are lowercased when not part of an official title.

See academic and administrative titles in the “Marywood University Information” section for guidelines on capitalizing titles with names. The same rules apply for military titles, with two exceptions: General of the Army and Fleet Admiral, which are capped to avoid ambiguity.

Astronomical Terms

Capitalize the names of stars, satellites, planets, etc. Capitalize Earthwhen it is used as the planet name; lowercase when it is used to mean soil or when it is used in a phrase such as the earth sciences.

Brand Names, Registered Trademarks

Brand names and registered trademarks are capitalized: Band-Aid; Kleenex; Xerox; Styrofoam; Frisbee; Velcro. Yet, whenever possible, use the generic term, such as bandage, tissue, photocopy.

Buildings, other Structure Names

Names of buildings, thoroughfares, monuments, etc., are capitalized: the White House; the Capitol (when referring to the U.S. Capitol building. All names of buildings on campus are capitalized.

Campus

Lowercase, even in campus names: Lehigh Valley campus, Pocono campus.

Class Years

It is University style to always capitalize the word “class” in reference to a specific year.

Kathleen Flaherty was a member of the Class of 1930.

Regina Magnotta Peters, was a team leader for the Class of 1968 Reunion Committee.

College Names within the University

Uppercase College when used as part of the proper name of a college; lowercase when used with the unofficial name of a college. Lowercase when used alone, whether it refers to a specific college or not.

                The Music, Theatre, and Dance Department is housed in the College of Arts and Sciences.

                Mark thought he would apply to a liberal arts college.

                Marywood University has three colleges within its academic structure.

Commencement

The word commencement is lowercased when used in a general sense and in media release format. In formal University documents or publications, however, we capitalize the specific event and its related activities.

General: The commencement activities will include a social for families of graduating students.

Formal: Following the procession, Commencement begins at 1:30 p.m.

                The Commencement Weekend schedule is posted on Marywood University’s website.

Committee Names

In general, committee names are not capped. However, if lowercasing a committee name confuses readers, cap it.

Dean’s List

Always capitalize Dean’s List. It is a formal academic document.

Fax

Lowercase, unless it’s the first word in a contact line:

Tom considered his fax machine a good investment.

Contact Dr. Anderson at:

Phone: 123-555-6789

Fax: 123-555-2468

Federal, State

These terms are lowercase.

The program is awaiting state and federal funding.

G.I. Bill

Caps, periods on G. I., no space; cap Bill.

Musical Notes and Keys

For musical notes and keys, use Roman caps for major and Roman lowercase for minor. For clarity, use the words major and minor with the letters when naming keys.

One of Mozart’s best-known symphonies is in g minor.

middle C; key of G major; the D triad

Also, the music references op. and opus are lowercase.

Orientation

Much like Commencement, the actual event or related events are capitalized in formal University publications, however, use lowercase for general references and news release format.

General: The orientation schedule may be revised this year.

Formal: Mary will be a student leader at this year’s Orientation Weekend.

Program Names

See fields of study, Marywood University programs in the “Academic Style” section.

Scientific and Medical Terms

See sections 7.101–7.124 of the Chicago Manual for guidelines on capping scientific and medical terms.

Seasons of the Year; Semesters; Holidays

The four seasons are lowercased. Semesters are lowercased. If a semester is paired with as specific year, it is capitalized (Spring 2019 Semester). Religious holidays are capitalized, as are most secular holidays.

Thesis/Dissertation

A scholarly paper written to earn a graduate degree at Marywood University, whether at the master’s or doctoral level, is a thesis (not a dissertation). Plural: theses.

Titles of Departments and Administrative Areas

On first mention, use the full name of the department or administrative area and capitalize all words except prepositions. On subsequent reference, when only a partial name is used, lowercase.

The Department of Nursing assisted with clinic.

The nursing department often assists the University with community health outreach efforts.

Titles of Works

Cap all words except prepositions, unless the writer did otherwise or the style guide requires otherwise. See the Chicago Manual for a more complete listing of capitalization rules for titles. Also see the Chicago Manual for a complete explanation and more examples of italic/non-italic titles. The following are italicized:

  • book titles
  • brochures and pamphlets
  • movie titles
  • magazine and periodical titles
  • newspaper names
  • long poems
  • plays
  • paintings, drawings, sculpture, works of art
  • long musical compositions
  • TV and radio programs (continuing series)

Items that should be in quotation marks:

direct quotes; song titles; short poems; essays; television and radio programs (individual episodes); short story titles; article titles; parts of books (chapters or sections); conference titles.

In names of newspapers and magazines, the is in Roman type and lowercased, no matter how the newspaper refers to itself within its own pages.

I read the Scranton Times-Tribune and the Wood Word.

Trustees

Board of Trustees: Capitalize on first mention; the board or the trusteesthereafter.

University

University should be capped any time it refers to Marywood. Do not cap university if the reference is a general one, even if Marywood is in the same sentence.

Marywood University is an independent, comprehensive, Catholic institution.

Students leave for their winter break on December 21 and return to the University three weeks later.

Area residents value our university community.

University-wide

It’s University-wide, hyphenated, but it’s statewide, nationwide, and just about every other “wide” spelled solid. If you want to investigate further, consult the Chicago Manual and the “Hyphens” section of this guide

University Publications

Italicize names of University publications that come out on a regular basis.

The next issue of Marywood Magazine will explore details about the new academic program.

America

Remember that America is more than just the United States. A number of countries comprise North, Central, and South America. When you mean the United States of America, use United States instead of just America. Be as specific as possible in your references to countries and their citizens. When abbreviating the United States, use U.S. (with periods). USA, however, when used has no periods.

State Names

When a state name is used in text with a town but no street address, it is spelled out.

The student was born and raised in Erie, Pennsylvania.

When a state name is used as part of a mailing address, use the two-letter post office abbreviation.

Send inquiries to: Marywood University, 2300 Adams Avenue, Scranton PA 18509

Do not use the two-letter post office abbreviations in lists, tables, notes, bibliographies, or indexes. For the correct abbreviations to use in these cases, see the Chicago Manual.

United States/U.S.

Spell out when used as a noun; abbreviate when used as an adjective.

After their move, they spent a lot of time adjusting to the United States.

U.S. policy in Europe was the topic of discussion.

Use of Comma with State Names

Use a comma before and after a state name when it’s used with a town or city name in text.

We were already in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by the time we discovered that we needed more fuel.

The easiest way to determine whether to hyphenate or where to break a word is to look it up in the dictionary. Avoid breaking words in a publication-move to the next line whenever possible. Refer to the Chicago Manual's Table 6.1, "A Spelling Guide for Compound Words," for more examples. Do not hyphenate compounds preceding or following a noun where the hyphen would be placed after a word ending in ly: highly regarded scholar; ridiculously long commute; unreasonably difficult take-home exam

Adjectival Phrases

Hyphenate phrases used as adjectives before a noun.

  • The proposal was a last-ditch effort at credibility.
  • The students compiled a mile-long list of requested improvements.
  • three-mile limit; 100-yard dash; one-inch margin; full-time student; fifteen-week semester; eight-week session;
but,
  • a 10 percent increase (The word percent is always spelled out in text format, and it is never hyphenated.)

When a numbers and units of measurement are used adjectivally, they should be hyphenated:

12-inch rule; nineteenth-century painter, three-week course

All, Fold, Half, Like, Self, Wide, Multi

Hyphenate compounds that use all whether they precede or follow the noun.

  • The wizard in the story was all-knowing and all-seeing.
  • His is an all-encompassing compassion; he serves without thought of praise or other reward.

Adjectival compounds with fold are spelled solid, unless they are formed with figures.

  • The professor noticed a threefold increase in class attendance when he started using more videos.
  • The results indicate an amazing 175-fold decrease in cellular mutation.

Hyphenate half compounds whether they precede or follow the noun.

  • Dave was only half-awake during the review session.
  • Their half-hearted efforts were unsuccessful.

Any like words can be spelled solid.

He had a childlike sense of wonder and enthusiasm that made class really interesting.

Self words should be hyphenated.

self-employed; self-serving; self-sufficient

Use a hyphen with all proper nouns and wide:

  • University-wide.
  • Do not hyphenate other wide words: statewide, nationwide, countywide.

Multi words are spelled solid unless such a spelling makes for awkward reading.

"Co" Words

Words formed with the prefix co should be hyphenated. This is University style. Using a hyphen between the co and the root word makes the word more readable and prevents confusion. Exceptions: coed, coeducational, cooperate.

co-author, co-chair, co-owner, co-founder

Compounds Preceding a Noun

Compounds with well-, ill-, better-, best-, high-, little-, lesser-, low-, etc., are hyphenated when they precede the noun unless the expression carries a modifier: well-known man; he is well known; high-quality work; very high quality work.

Grade-Point Average

Hyphenate grade-point. Avoid abbreviating this, but if you must, use GPA-all caps, no periods.

Hyphens, Dashes

A general rule is that hyphens link items and dashes separate items.

A hyphen joins words to form compound adjectives or is used to attach certain prefixes or suffixes to words.

The dash that is usually typed as two hyphens (--) is typeset as an em dash (-). It indicates a break in thought and can be used within a sentence to insert a parenthetical phrase. Neither a double hyphen nor an em dash should have spaces on either side.

The en dash (-) is used between ranges of numbers or dates, or between adjectival phrases containing two-word concepts (1984-87; pp. 123-34; New York-Dallas flight). En dashes do not have spaces on either side. Do not use an en dash to replace a hyphen.

If you need a detailed description, see the Chicago Manual.

"Non" Prefixes

  • noncredit
  • nondegree-seeking student
  • nondiscrimination
  • nonpreregistered
  • nonprofit
  • nonstudent
  • non-University

One Word or Two? Hyphens or Not?

  • advanced standing student
  • classwork is one word, but course work is two words
  • coed; coeducational
  • cross-country (the sport)
  • daytime; nighttime
  • decision-making process; the process of decision making
  • fifteen-week semester
  • full-time: full-time student (adjective); He will be working full-time (adverb); also, part-time
  • fund-raising is hyphenated as a noun and as an adjective; fund-raiser is also hyphenated
  • grade-point average
  • grant-in-aid
  • inter-spell solid: intercollegiate, interorganizational
  • lifelong-adjective (daylong; monthlong; weeklong; yearlong)
  • life span (noun); life-span (adjective)
  • long-range (adjective)
  • long-term (adjective)
  • longtime (adjective)
  • low-income families; very low income families
  • multicampus
  • postbaccalaureate, postdoctoral, postdoctorate
  • prelaw
  • premedicine
  • preregistration and preregistered
  • primary care physician
  • quasi-as part of a compound noun, use separately; as adjective, use with hyphen: quasi scholar (noun), quasi-judicial (adj.)
  • student aid program
  • student-athlete
  • tax-deductible
  • turfgrass
  • ultra-spell solid: ultrafine, ultraviolet
  • under-spell solid: underline, underfunded
  • up-to-date
  • workforce, workplace, workstation; but work site
  • X-ray

Off campus, On campus

As adverb, no hyphens; as adjective, hyphens.

  • The two had rented an apartment off campus for the summer.
  • On-campus housing was provided for stranded commuters during the blizzard.

Note: Marywood University's Off Campus Degree Program, a specific program, is always capitalized and is never hyphenated. The abbreviation is OCDP.

Semi

No hyphen is used after semi unless it is connected to a word beginning with i.

  • semiconducting
  • semi-intelligent

Vice President

No hyphen. This is University style.

Spelling

Adviser, Not Advisor

It is University style and the first listing in Webster's.

British Spellings

Don't use them in University publications, except for theatre, which should be spelled as shown to conform to University style.

Capital, Capitol

Capital can refer to several things, including (1) a city serving as a seat of government; (2) net worth; (3) something that is serious or important; and (4) a style of alphabet letter.

Capitol refers to a building or group of buildings in which the functions of the state legislative government are carried out. When capped, it refers to the building in Washington, D.C. where the U.S. Congress meets. Capitol Hill refers to the legislative branch of the U.S. government.

Catalog

Use this spelling in all cases.

Class Years

It is University style to always capitalize the word "class" in reference to a specific year.

  • Kathleen Flaherty was a member of the Class of 1930.
  • Donna Pace chaired the Class of 1950 Gift Campaign.

Columbia/Colombia

Be aware of the difference between Columbia (the school) and Colombia (the country). Also, it's precolumbian art (prior to Columbus' 1492 voyage).

Company Names, abbreviations with

Abbreviations such as Bros., Co., Corp., Inc., Ltd., and & are commonly used in names of firms. In straighttext it is best to spell the name in its full form, but Inc. or Ltd. is usually dropped:

  • A. G. Becker and Company
  • Kyle Publishing Company

In notes, bibliographies, lists, etc., the abbreviations above may be freely (if consistently) used:

  • Ginn & Co.
  • Norfolk & Western Railroad
  • Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Co.

Course Work

Course work is two words.

Data, Datum

Data is plural; datum is singular

Database

This is typically listed as one word.

Ensure or Insure

The dictionary says these two are synonymous with each other and with guarantee, assure, and secure. But only insure can be used with anything pertaining to insurance. It's less confusing for readers to use ensure in noninsurance matters and insure for insurance.

Foreword

A brief introduction in a publication (usually written by someone other than the author and used only in lengthy publications) is called a foreword-NOT a forward. It's easy to remember if you think about what it is-a few words before the main text.

Media/Medium

Media is plural; medium is singular. Never use mediums as a plural form.

Page/Volume

Use p. to abbreviate page; pp. to abbreviate pages.

When referring to the volume number of a publication, use vol. (do not cap).

Plurals of Names

Make a plural out of a name by adding s or es-no apostrophe.

After trying to keep up with the Joneses, we decided to settle for running slightly behind the Smiths.

Possessives, Plurals

Make singular nouns possessive by adding 's and make plural nouns possessive by adding only an apostrophe.

  • The pigeon's wing appeared to be broken.
  • The pigeons' refuge was a small ledge that was part of the stone work on the old bank building.

When a plural noun ending in s is more descriptive than possessive, it is permissible to omit the apostrophe. (This is University style.)

  • She looked forward to attending the Girls Volleyball Sports Camp.
  • West Texas State University began as a teachers college.

Possessives of Singular and Proper Nouns That End in S

If a singular noun ends in an s, add only an apostrophe to make it possessive. Use the same rule for names. (This is University style.)

  • Every space was empty in the Alvernia Campus' parking lot.
  • Sherlock Holmes' reasoning abilities did not fail him.

Proper Nouns as Adjectives

Generally, when a proper noun is used, it is spelled out. When a proper noun or phrase is used as an adjective, it may be abbreviated.

  • After their move, they spent a lot of time adjusting to the United States. (United States is noun.)
  • U.S. policy in Europe was the topic of discussion. (U.S. is adjective.)

USA, however, when used has no periods.

Résumé

Use two acute accent marks, one on each e. This spelling is University style.

"Saint" Names and Prefixes to Geographic Names

Place names beginning with Saint or Sainte should be spelled out in full. (In French "Saint" names, the Saint is almost always hyphenated.)

The conference is scheduled for August in Saint Louis, Missouri.

When Saint is part of a personal name, the named person's preference should be followed.

Ruth St. Denis danced to the music of Camille Saint-Saëns.

Double-check the names of universities, hospitals, and churches with Saint in their names:

Saint John's University is in Minnesota, but St. John's University is in New York.

Other prefixes of most geographic names should be spelled out:

Fort Wayne; San Francisco; Port Arthur

Theatre

University style says spell this one tre unless it's part of a name that's spelled er.

Through

Not thru.

Under way

Two words:

Implementation of the new policy is under way.

Vita/Vitae

Vita is singular; vitae is plural. However, use curriculum vitae for the singular form, curricula vitae for the plural. See Webster's Tenth.

Word Usage

A, an

When referring to an abbreviation or acronym, use the appropriate article for the way the abbreviation is spoken, not spelled. Thus: an M.B.A., an M.S., an FBI agent. For more information, see Chicago 14.15.

Acronyms

Although people at Marywood University refer to various facilities and programs by acronyms in speech and internal publications (such as LRC for the Learning Resources Center), in University publications writers should not use acronyms except for those commonly used both inside and outside the University community (such as NASA and the FBI). If an acronym must be used to spare readers confusion, spell out the full name on the first mention, with the acronym in parentheses following.

Acronyms are made plural by adding an s if there are no periods in the acronym (IOUs) and adding 's if there are periods in the acronym (Ph.D.'s). See the Chicago Manual for more on the appropriate use of acronyms.

Alphabetizing

See the Chicago Manual for a guide to alphabetizing.

Chair; Chairperson

Use chair or chairperson, even if you know the gender of the person involved.

Comprise

This word means include or encompass-so, the seminars may comprise undergraduate and graduate students, but the seminar is composed of students. The whole comprises the parts; the parts compose the whole.

Data, Datum

Data is plural; datum is singular.

Disabled, Handicapped

A person with disabilities is preferred over a disabled person for University publications. Handicapped is often used in government publications, but should be avoided for general use.

Etc.

When listing items following i.e. or e.g., it is not necessary to include etc.

  • Pat packed what was needed for the picnic (e.g., a blanket, plates, silverware).
  • Sheryl spent all of her money on school supplies (notebooks, pens, folders, etc.).

Ensure or Insure

The dictionary says these two are synonymous with each other and with guarantee, assure, and secure. But only insure can be used with anything pertaining to insurance. It's less confusing for readers to use ensure in noninsurance matters and insure for insurance.

Faculty-Plural or Singular?

Faculty, like other collective nouns, is used with the singular form of a verb when considered one unit and the plural form of a verb when considered as a group of individuals.

  • The faculty insists that students be allowed to speak.
  • The faculty include distinguished scholars in many fields.

Fewer/Less

Use less for a single quantity and fewer for number:

The new building has less floor space, yet it contains no fewer than 100 classrooms.

In some cases, even when a number is used, the thought is of a single quantity. For example:

  • Jennifer worked in our office for less than three years. (refers to a period of time, not individual years)
  • None of our professors earns less than $15,000 a year. (refers to a sum of money, not separate dollars)

Foreword

A brief introduction in a publication (usually written by someone other than the author and used only in lengthy publications) is called a foreword-NOT a forward. It's easy to remember if you think about what it is-a few words before the main text.

Media/Medium

Media is plural; medium is singular. Never use mediums as a plural form.

More than/Over

When referring to something that can be counted, use more than rather than over.

  • More than three hundred people attended (not Over three hundred people attended).
But:
  • Jason is over six feet tall.

Quality

The word quality should be qualified. To write that the college has built a quality program leaves open the question of degree of quality. For clarity, use high-quality as an adjective.

Sexual Stereotyping

Avoid all sexual stereotyping, as in Today's secretary is a busy woman.

Use chair or chairperson rather than chairman or chairwoman, even if you know the person's gender.

Use he or she or, preferably, the sex-blind plural they.

Avoid terms such as maid service (make it housekeeping service); salesmanship (change to effective selling).

When impossible to change, use the slash method, such as foreman/forewoman. (But why not supervisor?)

That/Which-Which to Use

There is a difference between that and which. Use that for restrictive clauses-clauses that are essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use which for nonrestrictive clauses-clauses that, if removed, would not change the meaning of the sentence. Set off the nonrestrictive clause with commas. (If a sentence has two thats in it, and the reader may be confused, it's OK to substitute a which for one of the thats.)

  • The book that she wanted was not in the library.
  • The books, which are on the kitchen table, are overdue at the library.

Title or Entitle

Entitle means to give title to; title means to provide a title for or call by a title:

The author entitled the book last week; the book, titled How to Write Well, is here.

Unique

Avoid using the term unique as a descriptor-nothing is. Opt instead for terms such as individual, uncommon, special, rare, etc.

Who/Whom-Which to Use

As Theodore Bernstein wrote in The Careful Writer, an easy way to determine which to use is to turn a clause into a sentence. Who is a nominative and therefore would match she, for example, in usage terms. Whom would match her.

  • Alice, who had been with the company for thirty years, was eligible for retirement. [She (not Her) had been with the company for thirty years.]
  • Whom should I ask? [Should I ask her (not she)?]

See The Careful Writer for a detailed clarification of who/whom usage.

Numbers

Numbers or Words?

Spell out numbers lower than 20 in nonscientific text. If a number higher than 20 is rounded off or approximated, spell it out in nonscientific copy. Otherwise, 20 and higher are numerals in text. For charts and graphs, use numerals.

Treat numbers in the same sentence alike: if there's a three-figure number in the sentence, make all the numbers figures, as long as the figures all relate to the same items.

  • The students collected 114 books for the sale, 12 of which were first editions.
  • Conducting four meetings made it possible for the fifteen students to collect 114 used books.

Ages should be expressed in numerals. (This is University style.)

  • I have an 11-year-old daughter and a 10-year-old son.
  • The student was 35 when he received his doctorate.
  • However: Dr. Foley celebrated her fortieth birthday.

Use either a figure or a word-not both. Five rooms, not five (5) rooms. Delete the parentheses and the 5.

Use the up-to-20-spelled-out/higher-than-20-numeral rule for ordinal numbers (first, second, 90th, 120th, 223rd, etc.). This applies to numbered street names as well: Fifth Avenue, Fourteenth Street, 42nd Street.

Addresses

In street addresses, building numbers are usually written in arabic numerals: 2300 Adams Avenue. However, when a building's name is also its address, the number is spelled out: One Park Place.

Class Years

There has been much discussion regarding this topic. It has been determined that all class years of alumni or students should be written after the individual's full name (not between a woman's maiden name and married name). Do not use a comma between the name and the year.

It is important to note the reasoning behind this practice:

  • A class year applies to a person, not to the person's name. Even if a person changes his or her name, the class year still applies to that person.
  • Technically speaking, the class year is a modifier, and as such should never be placed in the middle of a proper noun, e.g. a person's name.
  • Automatic line spacing by computers often creates a situation where a class year could fall at the end of a line. If it were between a person's name, it would splice the person's full name. If a comma divided the class year and name, the class year would subsequently be separated from that person's name. In addition to being incorrect in format, these placements could cause great confusion for the reader.
  • Additionally, the prospect of pairing a class year next to a maiden or graduation name would mean that writers would need to evaluate every case to determine whether a person's name had been acquired prior to or after graduation before verifying a class year placement. This practice is tedious as well as erroneous.
  • Finally, aesthetics play a role - it simply looks better and more consistent to use a class year following the person's full last name.

 

Correct: 

  • Noreen Durkin Anderson '92
  • John Smith '04   

Incorrect:

  • Noreen Durkin '92 Anderson
  • John Smith, '04

Credits, Units

Always use numerals: 3 credits; 18 credits in history; a 3-credit course; 4 units of English; 1 unit of geometry; 2 units of a foreign language. Also, use numerals when referring to credit hours.

(Note use of "in" with credits and "of" with units.)

Decades

No apostrophe: 1920s; 1980s; mid-1970s; spell out thirties; forties; fifties; sixties; etc.

A decade would only include an apostrophe if it was being used as a possessive modifier.

  • The actors wore 1950's clothing styles.

but,

  • The clothing styles featured in the revue were from the 1950s.

Please note that a.d. and b.c. are set in small caps (typeface about two points smaller than rest of text). Also note that b.c. follows the date, while a.d. precedes it.

He was born in 44 b.c.; she was born in a.d. 44.

Enumerations-Second, Third

In some cases, such as edition numbers in reference lists, ordinal numbers are expressed in numerals (4th ed., for example). Unlike the Chicago Manual, University style calls for second and third to be enumerated as shown: 2nd; 3rd. (Chicago Manual calls for 2d; 3d.) Spell out ordinal numbers in straight text: first, seventeenth, twenty-third.

Fractions

Fractions generally are too cumbersome to spell out and should be expressed in numerals, but judge each case on its own.

  • The obstacle was a 3 1/2-foot fence.
  • They had finished about one-third of the course.

Money

Spell out or use figures according to the general rule (one through nineteen spelled out, 20 and higher in numerals). If you spell out the number, then spell out the currency reference and vice versa.

They paid fifteen dollars for the picture at a rummage sale.

Only if an even dollar amount is in a sentence with a dollar/fraction amount do you use .00 after the amount.

The children paid $1.50 to enter; adults paid $3.00.

If you are preparing a brochure about a conference that has an application fee, use the dollar symbol and numerals. That's easier for readers to pick out when they're looking for the cost.

The $75 registration fee covers meals and learning materials.

More than/Over

When referring to something that can be counted, use more than rather than over.

  • More than fifty people attended (not Over fifty people attended).

but,

  • Jason is over six feet tall.

Multiple-digit Numbers

Use a comma for four-digit and larger numbers (except dates): 3,500; 60,000.

 For very large numbers, use figure and word: 1.2 million, $90 million.

No. and Number

Lowercase and use numeral with no. Whether to abbreviate or spell out depends on the nature of the publication. Spell out number in text, abbreviate in listings, charts, or graphs.

  • This is the number one priority among prospective students surveyed.
  • Name/Address/Social Security no.

Number Is or Number Are

A number are available; the number is specific.

  • A number of textbooks are on back order.
  • The number of guests expected is fifty-six.

Numbers at the Beginning of a Sentence

Always spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence. Rearrange the sentence if spelling out the number makes it cumbersome. Avoid putting numbers next to numbers-separate the numbers with words if possible.

Parts of Books

Use numerals when you are referring to parts of a book.

Chapter 4; Table 2.5; page 4

Percent

Always use numerals; spell out percent in text: 15 percent; 9.2 percent. Use the % symbol in charts, graphs, and scientific and mathematical material.

Plurals of Spelled-out Numbers

Plurals of spelled-out numbers are formed like plurals of other nouns.

Quantities as numerals with abbreviations

If a quantity is used with an abbreviation, the quantity always should be expressed in numerals. If a symbol is used with the quantity, use a numeral. For two or more in quantity, the symbol should be repeated:

3" x 5"; 30' x 50'; 80 km; 2 tsp.

Round Numbers

Approximate figures in hundreds, thousands, or millions should be spelled out. Very large figures should be written as numerals, whether they are approximated or not.

  • The company distributed more than one million books.
  • The nation's population neared 2.3 billion.

Scientific Text

In mathematical, statistical, technical, or scientific text, use figures. In ordinary text, treat the numbers according to University style as explained in this section.

Times of Day

Although times of day are often spelled out in text, in most University material, the time of day is important for scheduling purposes; thus, University style has come to be the figure and a.m. or p.m. in both text and schedule listings. Note that a.m. and p.m. are not capitalized.

Classes scheduled for 5 p.m. and later have been canceled for today.

When possible, drop p.m. or a.m. rather than repeat it.

The meeting will be held from 4:30 to 6 p.m.

To avoid confusion, use noon and midnight rather than 12:00 p.m. (noon) and 12:00 a.m. (midnight). Don't capitalize noon or midnight unless it is the first word of the sentence.

I thought he said to meet him at midnight, but he meant that I should meet him at noon.

When preparing a conference agenda, if there are concurrent sessions that begin at the same time but end at different times, list the shorter one first:

10-11 a.m.:          Personal Effectiveness

10 a.m.-noon:     CQI: An Overview

Punctuation

For further guidance on punctuation, consult a grammar and usage guide, but be consistent with whichever style you choose.

Ampersand

Use ampersands (&) only in charts, tables, or lists of companies, where the ampersand is part of the company's official name. Use and in text.

Brackets

Use brackets for parentheses within parentheses and for editorial interpolations or word substitutions in quotations.

"I took my first acting class at the age of 35 [which led to my] late start professionally."

Use brackets to enclose editorial explanation.

According to Professor McCabe, the piece dates back to 130 b.c. [This date is currently in dispute; see interview with Dr. Joan Smith in the November 1996 issue of Rock Art Research.]

Use brackets to set off phonetic transcripts of words.

The duiker [diy-kuh] is a small African antelope with an arched back and short horns separated by a long tuft of hair.

Colon

If a colon introduces a complete sentence, more than one sentence, a formal statement, quotation, or speech in a dialogue, capitalize the first word of the sentence. If the colon introduces a sentence fragment, do not cap the first letter.

  • The class was informed of the house rule: Everyone, at every class session, must contribute to the general discussion
  • The study covered three areas: nuclear waste, industrial waste, and cancer cases.

A colon commonly is used to introduce a series or list. The terms as follows or the following require a colon if followed directly by the illustrating or enumerated items or if the introducing clause is incomplete without those items:

The steps are as follows:

  1. Gather the ingredients ...

An outline of the procedure follows. The cooking times are based on temperatures of the lab oven. Times and temperatures may vary.

  1. Gather the ingredients ...

The colon is used when a sentence is intended to come almost to a dead stop:

Two things are essential to success: ambition and hard work.

However, when a sentence is not intended to be interrupted, a colon should NOT be inserted between a verb or preposition and its object:

Two things essential to success are [no colon] ambition and hard work.

A colon is used between the place of publication and the publisher's name in bibliographical references:

Robert Pinsky, Landor's Poetry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 95.

Commas

Compound sentences

Use a comma to separate parts of a compound sentence, placing the comma before the conjunction. Sentences with two verbs or verb clauses joined by and do not usually include a comma before the and. Use commas to set off a nonrestrictive or dependent clause (usually introduced by which). Do not use a comma with a restrictive clause (usually introduced by that, and usually the type of clause needed-which is often overused and incorrectly used).

  • Some of the people remained calm, but others seemed on the verge of panic.
  • We studied the properties of the quarks and then formulated several hypotheses.
  • The report, which had been completed in record time, was presented to the conference as scheduled.
  • The questionnaires that were distributed to female students had quite an impact on the survey results.
Dates

Month, day, year:

June 13, 1971, was the day ... ; On Tuesday, June 13, the University President presented her proposal.

Month and year only, no comma:

June 1976; December 1987; The meeting had taken place in August 1981.

Inc.

Use a comma before and after Inc. in text.

 Jr., Sr., III

The latest edition of the Chicago Manual recommends that Jr., Sr., II, III, IV, etc., not be set off by commas unless the sentence structure dictates that a comma be used after.

  • The decision was left to Merriman Lyon Jr., Sung Soo Park, and Aruna Patel.
  • They named the twins JoEllyn Rachel Smith and Brian Carl Smith Jr.
  • Edward Muskakie III, professor of chemistry at Undine University, was scheduled to speak.
  • Queen Elizabeth II and the Prince and Princess of Wales were the guests of honor.
Serial Comma

Use a comma after the next-to-last item in a series.

  • The book compares the works of Cassatt, Degas, Morisot, and Monet.
  • Among her favorites were Dickens's Bleak House, Little Dorrit, and A Tale of Two Cities.
State Names in Text

Use a comma before and after a state name when it's used with a town or city name in text.

We were already in East Brunswick, New Jersey, by the time we discovered that we needed more fuel.

Street Addresses in Text

Use a comma at the end of a street address in text, if more copy follows.

Send inquiries to Marywood University, 2300 Adams Avenue, Scranton, PA 16802, or to your local university's career services office.

Ellipsis Points ( ... )

Avoid the use of ellipsis points if at all possible. They make the sentence harder to read and understand. Ellipsis points are appropriately used to indicate the omission of material from within a quotation, not as a way to "trail off" or pause. When ellipsis points are used within a sentence, use three. When ellipsis points are used between sentences, use four, the first or last of which serves as the period for the first sentence, depending upon where the omitted material occurs. Always use spaces between and around ellipsis points. See the Chicago Manual for more detailed rules on the use of ellipsis points.

Hyphens, Dashes

(Also see the "To Hyphenate or Not to Hyphenate" section.)

A general rule is that hyphens link items and dashes separate items.

A hyphen joins words to form compound adjectives or is used to attach certain prefixes or suffixes to words.

The dash that is usually typed as two hyphens (--) is typeset as an em dash (-). It indicates a break in thought and can be used within a sentence to insert a parenthetical phrase. Neither a double hyphen nor an em dash should have spaces on either side.

The en dash (-) is used between ranges of numbers or dates, or between adjectival phrases containing two-word concepts (1984-87; pp. 123-34; New York-Dallas flight). En dashes do not have spaces on either side. Do not use an en dash to replace a hyphen.

If you need a detailed description, see the Chicago Manual.

Lists

The easiest way to set off items listed vertically in a typed manuscript is to use em dashes. With sentence fragments in a series (vertical), it's best not to use punctuation at the end of each line. However, if you do choose to punctuate for a special reason, be consistent with the punctuation marks.

The agenda contained the following items:
-plans for construction of recreation building
-personnel decisions for the past month

If the listed items complete a sentence, use a semicolon after each item and a period after the last item. Do not place and before the last item.

Ellen was interested in finding:
-more space for the office;
-more money for the staff;
-more staff members.

If the items in a vertical list are complete sentences, cap the first word and put the appropriate punctuation at the end of each item.

The commision refused to make exceptions to the following rules:
-No brick shall be any color other than rusty red.
-Each brick shall be placed adjacent to at least three, but not more than four, other bricks.
-No broken brick shall be allowed to stand more than one day without being repaired.

If you decide to use numerals or letters with a list, use a period after them, not parentheses:

1. books
2. record albums

a. the Korean War 
b. the Eisenhower administration

Numbers or letters enumerating items in a list within a paragraph should be enclosed in parentheses and should not be followed by a period:

He had, in effect, discovered remarkable similaritites among (1) squirrels, (2) horses, and (3) hogs.

M.B.A./MBA

The degree is M.B.A., with periods, in all references. However, when referring to the program or to a person who has earned the degree, use MBA-no periods, no spaces. Plural: M.B.A.s, MBAs.

  • Diana Jones, B.S., M.B.A., will head the task force on improving MBA negotiating skills.
  • Two hundred MBAs attended the alumni workshop.

Quotation Marks

Quotation marks go inside semicolons and colons, outside commas and periods. Question marks and exclamation points go inside the quotation marks if they are part of the quote and outside if they are not. For more details, see the Chicago Manual.

  • Did you watch "The Story of English"?
  • Then he asked, "Did you check for magnesium in the sample?"
  • Miller objected to the boss's reference to "nonessential personnel": It made him feel unnecessary, as he was the only person in that category.
  • The professors co-authored "Effects of Ultraviolet Rays on Plant Life," published in the May 1986 issue of Science Today.

Items that should be in quotation marks: direct quotes; song titles; short poems; essays; television and radio programs; short story titles; article titles; parts of books (chapters or sections). For more complete information, see the Chicago Manual.

Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC)

Note the apostrophe; no periods with abbreviation.

Semicolon

The following words are considered adverbs rather than conjunctions and should be preceded by a semicolon when used between clauses of a compound sentence: then, however, thus, hence, indeed, yet, so. Semicolons also are used to join complete sentences where a period would create too much of a pause in the train of thought:

  • I wanted to give you something special; I wanted to surprise you.
  • I should be there at 5 p.m.; however, traffic may prevent me from arriving any earlier than 7p.m.

Veterans Administration (V.A.)

Use periods with this one.

Spacing

Academic degrees

Capitalize the first letter of each abbreviated part of an academic degree. Use periods and do not use spaces among the letters.

B.A.; B.El.Ed.; B.Eng.

Between Sentences and After Punctuation

In typewritten material, the typist should space twice between sentences. In printed material or in manuscripts on computer disk to become printed material, only one space is inserted between sentences. All other punctuation should have only one space, if any, after it.

Breaking Names at End of Line

When two initials and a last name are in text, it is preferred that the entire name be on one line. If a break must be made, it should be after the initials, never between the initials.

Dashes

Do not insert spaces on either side of a dash. (See "Punctuation")

Initials in a Name

When a person uses two initials and a last name, a space should be inserted between the initials. A space also should be inserted between the last initial and the last name.

P. G. Wodehouse

But, no space between two-letter abbreviations (i.e., U.S., P.O.).

Phone Numbers

Use hyphens to separate the area code from the exchange and the exchange from the number: 814-863-1870.

Post Office Box

PO BOX 1

The post office's machinery has trouble reading typed envelopes unless the addresses are in all caps with no punctuation except for the hyphen in the "plus four" zip code.

Zip Codes

Space twice between the city and the state abbreviation and the state abbreviation and the zip code in an address.

Scranton  PA  18509