Good practice in undergraduate education

  • Encourages student-faculty contact
  • Encourages cooperation among students
  • Encourages active learning
  • Gives prompt feedback
  • Emphasizes time on task
  • Communicates high expectations
  • Respects diverse talents and ways of learning

Source: Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, by Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson


Student will Grow in

  • A feeling of competence
  • Managing their own emotions
  • Gaining a feeling of autonomy and then a feeling of interdependence
  • Developing mature relationships
  • Forming their identity
  • Developing a purpose
  • Gaining a sense of integrity

Source: Evans, N.J, Forney, D.S., Guido-DiBrito, F., 1998. Student Development in College: Theory, Research and Practice. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.


Theory of Support and Challenge

Think of a continuum, on one side is challenge and on the other side is support. Too little challenge with too much support = complacency, and the student becomes overly comfortable and will not experience growth. On the opposite end, too little support with too much challenge = being overwhelmed, which leads to frustration and again, to no growth. We need to find a balance between support and challenge. This theory also considers the disequilibrium between one way of knowing and another to be vital in the growth process.

Source: Sanford, N. 1968. Where colleges fail: a study of student as a person, Jossey Bass.