AAALAC- Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International. A private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through voluntary accreditation and assessment programs.

Acute Pain- Results from a traumatic, surgical or infectious event that is abrupt in onset, relatively short in duration, and generally alleviated by analgesics. Associated distress may be responsive to tranquilizers.

Analgesia- A deadening or absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness.

Anesthesia- Controls pain during surgery or other medical procedures.

Animal Welfare Assurance- Key document in defining the relationship between the institution and the Public Health Service (PHS), signed by the Institutional Official.

APHIS- Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Chronic Pain- Results from a long-standing physical disorder or emotional distress that is usually slow in onset, has a long duration, and is generally not totally alleviated by analgesics, but frequently responds to tranquilizers combined with environmental manipulation and behavioral conditioning.

Distress- That which causes pain, suffering, trouble, danger, etc.

Euthanasia- The intentional killing by act or omission of a dependent animal being for his or her alleged benefit.

Exemption- An exception approved by the IACUC to the standards of animal care specified in the Guide or the Ag Guide. Exemptions from Standards of Care must be approved by the IACUC every six months.

Experimental Animal Endpoints- The time at which live animals (or groups of animals) are no longer undergoing experimental treatment or procedures. In many studies the experimental endpoint is euthanasia.

IACUC- Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. The IACUC is responsible for oversight of the Animal Care and Use program and monitoring its compliance with applicable federal and state regulations and appropriate guidelines.

Local anesthesia- The injection or application of an anesthetic drug to a specific area of the body, as opposed to the entire body and brain as occurs during general anesthesia.

Non-surgical procedure- Any procedure preformed on a live animal that does not meet the definitions of surgery, restraint or, euthanasia.

Non-survival surgery- Surgery in which the animal is euthanized before recovery from anesthesia.

Observational Studies- Studies in animals are only observed and not subjected to treatment(s), procedures, or euthanasia.

Pain and Distress Categories- The USDA has established categories which broadly describe the level of pain or distress that animals are expected to experience. This USDA scale ranges from B (animals held only for breeding or observation) to E (animals experiencing significant pain or distress not relieved by analgesics).

Principal Investigator (PI)- This title identifies the individual responsible for the conduct of the project. This responsibility includes the intellectual conduct of the project, fiscal accountability, administrative aspects, and the project's adherence to relevant policies and regulations.

Project Director- This title is a synonym for Principal Investigator on non-research sponsored programs or for "program-project" grants or contracts.

Protocol- The established code of procedure involving any use of animals as required by Marywood University.

Sedation- The act of calming by administration of a sedative. A sedative is a medication that commonly induces the nervous system to calm.

Surgery- A procedure involving (major) incisions to remove, repair, or replace a part of a body.

Tranquilization- To sedate or relieve of anxiety or tension by the administration of a drug.