Deception in Research
Definition & Overview
Deception is defined as intentional misleading of others through misrepresentation or falsehood. In research, it may happen when investigators provide participants with incomplete or false information in order to obtain unbiased results in social or behavioral research.
Deception presents challenges in the protection of human participants because it interferes with the requirements for fully informed consent and overall ethical considerations. Therefore, deception should only be utilized when there are no viable alternatives. The IRB may find the use of deception acceptable when it is unavoidably required in order for the research to take place, when it is adequately justified, and when the benefits outweigh the risks. In general, deception is not acceptable if, in the judgment of the IRB, the participant may have declined to participate had he/she been informed of the true purpose of the research.
Deception may only be permitted where the IRB documents that a waiver or alteration of the usual informed consent requirements is justified under the criteria presented in federal regulations at 45 CFR 46.116(d). Specifically, the IRB must find and document that all four of the following criteria have been satisfied:
- The research presents no more than minimal risk to participants.
- The waiver or alteration will not adversely affect the rights and welfare of the participants.
- The research could not practicably be carried out without the waiver or alteration.
- Where appropriate, the participants will be provided with additional pertinent information after participation.
Types of Review
Research involving deception does not qualify for exemption and therefore must be submitted to the Institutional Review Board for either full or expedited review. Federal regulations prohibit the use of deceptive techniques that place participants at greater than minimal risk.
For research which poses no greater than minimal risk, the appropriate category of review will depend upon:
- The nature of the deception
- The degree of risk present
- The vulnerability of the participants
- Whether or not all activities qualify for a federal expedited category or categories
If an investigator plans to employ deceptive techniques in a study, in addition to the regular IRB submission requirements, the following information or documentation must be included:
- Request for a Waiver or Alteration of Informed Consent Form
Federal regulations require complete disclosure of the purpose and procedures of a study in the informed consent process; however, the IRB may waive some elements of consent if certain criteria are met. Please see the IRB's Forms & Instructions page for a Waiver or Alteration of Informed Consent Request Form. All four points on the form must be addressed.
Justify the use of deception, explaining why it is necessary. Explain if alternative methods not involving deception were considered and why these methods are not being used. State if participants would have been less likely to participate had they known the true nature of the study.
- Description of Risk(s)
Describe any additional risk resulting from the deception. Will it upset or inflict any harm to participants? Explain how risk will be minimized during and after the experiment.
Debriefing provides participants with a full explanation of the hypothesis being tested, procedures used to deceive participants and the reason(s) why it was necessary to deceive. It should also include any other relevant background information concerning the study.
- Explain the debriefing process.
- Explain when debriefing will take place.
- Explain who will debrief participants.
- Provide the debriefing form. If applicable, provide a script to be read to orally.
- If there are any elements that will not be revealed to participants, explain and provide a rationale.
- If debriefing itself would present an unreasonable risk of harm, explain.
Include an option for participants to withdraw their data from the study after they learn the true nature of the research.